Text and Commentary:


The state of transposed substance that has the obscuring indeterminate nature is the connection between the sentience and the basis.

     The state of transposed substance has two modes: the real and  the seeming.  Real transposed substance refers to the seventh consciousness relating to the eighth consciousness by falsely transposing the latter's perceiver division into a 'self'.  That 'self' has no reality of its own, but is based upon the substance of the perceiver division of the eighth consciousnesss. [The seeming transposed substance refers to the sixth consciousness's relations with external states.]

     The obscuring indeterminate nature is one of two modes of the indeterminate nature, the third of the Three Natures.  The other mode is the non-obscuring indeterminate nature.  Obscuring refers to those states of consciousness that have the function of, literally, 'covering' one's true nature.  That is what the seventh consciousness does.  As will be explained, it 'covers'--it distorts the true  nature of--the perceiver division of the eighth consciousness.  The non-obscuring nature refers to the perceived division of the eighth consciousness.  It is said to be non-obscuring because it does not distort or obscure the true nature of the mind.

     In between the seventh consciousness--'sentience' in the verse--and the perceiver division of the eighth consciousness--'basis' in the verse--there arises a state of transposed substance, which is  the object of the seventh consciousness and which is identified by the seventh consciousness as being the 'self'.  This is the process that obscures one's true nature. 

According with conditions and attached to self, its mode of knowledge is fallacy.

     As the seventh consciousness transmits information between the eighth consciousness and the first six consciusnesses, it overlays the information with self, thereby invovling the first six consciousnesses in its own fallacy.

     The 'conditions', or situation, are those described in the first line: the state of transposed substance arising in between the seventh and eighth consciousnesses.

     The four types of attachment to self are described in line four below.

     Fallacy is the third of the Three Modes of Knowledge, already mentioned above, the first two being direct, veridical perception and inference. The seventh consciousness's attachment is innate and, therefore, a fundamentally fallacious mode of knowledge; it is not based on wrong inference as is the case with the sixth consciousness's coarse, distinguished, attachment to self. (The sixth consciousness also has a subtle, innate, attachment to self.) 

The eight major-grade derivative afflictions; the universally interactive; of the particular states, judgment;

Self-love; self-delusion; view of self; and self-conceit all interact and accord with it.

     The eight major-grade derivative afflictions are lack of faith, laziness, laxness, torpor, restlessness, distraction, improper knowledge, and scatteredness.

     The five universally interactive dharmas are attention, contact, feeling, conceptualization, and deliberation.

     Self-love, self-delusion, view of self, and self-conceit are known as the Four Types of Delusion.  The four arise because of one of the Five Particular States, judgment, which refers to decision-making based wholly on worldly knowledge which is defiled by self. "Judgment" ceases to operate on the grounds of the sages, that is, from the eighth ground on.  'It' refers to the seventh consciousness.  All of the eighteen dharmas listed here are dependent upon the seventh consciousness for their existence and all interact with it. 

It continuously focuses its mental activity on inquiry which results in the characteristic that is self.

     The seventh consciousness, in conjunction with the abovementioned mind-dependent dharmas, continously focuses on the perceiver division of the eighth consciousness, inquires into its nature, and erroneously ascertains that it is the true self.

     In contradistinction to the other consciousnessess the seventh consciousness both functions continuously and engages in mental inquiry.

Consciousnesses:              1-5       6         7          8

continuous functioning                             X         X

mental inquiry                               X        X


Day and night it  reduces sentient beings to a state of confusion.

     It is the seventh consciousness that keeps beings revolving on the wheel of rebirth. It is innate attachment to self that is the basis of our continued rebirth. 

The Four Delusions and the Eight Major-Grade Derivative Afflictions arise interacting with it.

     It is the Four Delusions, mentioned in line four above, and the EightMajor-Grade Derivative Afflictions, mentioned in line three above, that constitute "the state of confusion" of living beings. 

When the sixth consciousness is functioning, the seventh is called the basis of defilement and purity.

     The seventh consciousness is the mind-organ and as such is the basis of the sixth consciousness, which distinguishes what  is defiled and what is pure. 

During the initial phase of the Ground of Extreme Rejoicing, the Wisdom whose Nature is Equality begins to appear.

    The seventh consciousness automatically begins to be transformed as the sixth is transformed.  The seventh has no power of its own to eliminate delusion, because its delusions are all innate rather than distinguished.  Through meditations utilizing the sixth consciousness, attachment to self is eliminated, but attachment to dharmas still remains. 

Practice becomes effortless and the self is destroyed for good.

     On the eighth ground of the Bodhisattva all further cultivation is spontaneous and without personal effort because there is no longer any self. 

The Thus Come One appears [in a body] for the Enjoyment of Others

     The Dharma-Body of a Buddha has three different aspects: 1) the Body of Self-Mastery, 2) the Enjoyment Body, which in turn has two aspects--self enjoyment and enjoyment of others, and 3) transformation bodies. 

As an opportunity for Bodhisattvas of the Tenth Ground.

     The Buddhas use their Enjoyment Bodies to teach and transform the Bodhisattvas who are on the tenth ground.


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