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The Wondrous Adornments of the Rulers of the Worlds

Chapter One, Part Four and Five



The Great Hero’s skillful expedients are hard to fathom.
Nothing that he does is ever in vain.
He is determined to rid sentient beings of all suffering.
Candana Forest spirit awakens thus.


The Great Hero’s skillful expedients are hard to fathom. The Buddha is a great hero, a great man, and a great teacher. He is worthy of all these titles. We sentient beings call ourselves heroes, great men, and teachers, but we lack the true qualifications. The Buddha alone is deserving of these names. What is meant by Great Hero? It does not refer to one who draws his sword and is ready to fight. Great heroes are not aggressive and belligerent bullies who get others to obey orders by force. Great heroes can cultivate practices that others cannot cultivate, endure adversities that others cannot endure, and undergo suffering that others cannot undergo. Shakyamuni Buddha is an example of someone who cultivated practices that others cannot cultivate.

He cultivated blessings and wisdom for three asamkhyeyas of eons
And created the causes for the special marks and characteristics for a hundred kalpas.

During that incredibly long period of time, he was consistently vigorous and never lax. Thus, he cultivated what others could not. The Buddha also endured adversities that others would find unbearable. For instance, his limbs were severed from his body by King Kali. Most people would not have been able to endure that, but the Buddha did. Not only did he bear it, he vowed, “When I become a Buddha, you will be the first one I will take across to Buddhahood. Why? Because you are a genuine good advisor of mine. You are a true helper and protector. Out of concern for me, you have helped me succeed and develop my resolve for bodhi and reach the fruition of the Way. Therefore, I am determined to save you first.” Take a look. King Kali sliced off the Buddha’s flesh and his four limbs, yet the Buddha still vowed to save the king. Isn’t that a prime example of enduring adversities that others cannot endure?

He also underwent suffering that others cannot undergo. We of the present time are quite shameless. We eat one meal a day, and think we have some skill in cultivation. We think, “In the heavens and on earth, I alone am honored.”

Observe how Shakyamuni Buddha endured the cold of the Snow Mountains. From the name “Snow Mountains,” it’s obvious that it was cold. The snow on those mountains was so thick that it didn’t melt even in summertime. Even though it was bitterly cold, the Buddha ate only one sesame seed and one grain of wheat each day. We, in comparison, drink milk and eat oatmeal, butter, bread, delicious white rice, and yellow ginger with purple sprouts. If we want seasonings such as chili, pepper, soy sauce, or salt, they are all available.

When the Buddha was in the Snow Mountains, I doubt he had any of these seasonings. Why? Because the Buddha wasn’t as pathetic as we are. He wasn’t constantly wondering, “What are we going to have for lunch today? Will there be tofu? How about marshmallows?” Such are the idle thoughts we have. As we attend the Buddha recitation session, our thoughts take us right into the kitchen. Our minds wander into the kitchen to see what’s for lunch. It’s not a Buddha recitation session we’re holding; it’s a food session!

We ought to reflect on the kind of suffering our teacher, Shakyamuni Buddha, went through—suffering that most people cannot take. He was truly a great hero, an outstanding human being, a great teacher of gods and humans. He is truly worthy of being our teacher. With such a great hero for a teacher, we should certainly be disciples who are great heroes, not disciples who are as ignorant as country bumpkins--literally bags stuffed with straw, or cotton for that matter. We should put forth some effort for the sake of Shakyamuni Buddha, thinking, “Our teacher went through such bitter hardship in his time; why shouldn’t I be able to endure that kind of suffering? Why am I so willing to be a wine-bag, a rice-sack, and a clothes-hanger?” That’s what we ought to ask ourselves. That way, we won’t need to feel ashamed being disciples of a great hero.

“The Great Hero’s skillful expedients are hard to fathom.” Skillful, expedient methods are used to teach and transform sentient beings in a way that the teaching is adapted to the needs of the situation and the Dharma is taught on an individual basis, just as medicine is prescribed according to the patient’s illness. “Hard to fathom” indicates that the expedient methods employed by the Buddha are intrinsically different from the methods used by sentient beings. When we try to use expedient methods, people aren’t very receptive.

The Buddha uses those same expedient methods, and sentient beings are receptive to his teaching. What’s the principle here? It’s not simply a matter of dharma, it’s also a matter of affinity. Since the Buddha has established affinities with sentient beings, they are receptive to his teaching. We, however, have not created such affinities, so sentient beings take no delight in listening to our exhortations.

Therefore, we need to create affinities with sentient beings. What is more, the Buddha cultivated blessings and wisdom for three asamkhyeyas of eons, and created the causes for the special marks and characteristics for a hundred kalpas. With his merit and virtue perfected, he is able to influence others through his virtue instead of forcing them to submit. When people are oppressed by authority, they submit, but unwillingly. When people are inspired by virtue, they truly submit in their hearts. The Confucian school also teaches this:

When people are forced to submit, they do so unwillingly since they are powerless to do otherwise.
When people influenced by virtue, they submit willingly and with heartfelt sincerity.

Therefore, we ought to cultivate blessings and wisdom. By doing our best to benefit others, we cultivate blessings. We benefit ourselves when we cultivate wisdom. To be of benefit to others, we have to help them out. To be of benefit to ourselves, we should help ourselves. To help ourselves takes prajna. Helping others requires that we have the Four Unlimited Aspects of Mind of kindness, compassion, joy, and giving.

“Hard to fathom”: Ultimately, what kind of expedient method should we use? Which one is most suitable for the occasion? Only the Buddha knows. We sentient beings often think a certain method is right, but it turns out to be wrong. We think another method is wrong, but it is actually right. Therefore the line says that the Buddha’s expedient means are hard to fathom; they are not easy to understand.

Nothing that he does is ever in vain. The Buddha never engages in futile or useless endeavors. Everything the Buddha does and says brings benefit to sentient beings. We sentient beings, however, lack such understanding, and so we often do things wrong without realizing it.

He is determined to rid sentient beings of all suffering. The Buddha’s sole purpose, his only wish, is to completely eradicate the misery of sentient beings. The previous verse said,

The Thus Come One’s wisdom is inconceivable.
He completely understands the hearts of all sentient beings.
He can employ all sorts of expedient powers,
Extinguishing the measureless woes of the confused multitudes.

Extinguishing their measureless woes is easy to talk about, but not easy to do. In his every thought, the Buddha wishes to extinguish sentient beings’ woes. He has been doing this all the way to the present moment, and what happens is, each time he eradicates one sentient being’s woes, another sentient being’s woes begins. When he has put an end to that sentient being’s woes, yet another sentient being starts to suffer. Their sufferings are like endless waves coming one after another in the ocean. Like the woes of sentient beings, these waves are hard to stop. Nonetheless, the Buddha “is determined to rid sentient beings of all suffering.” So it’s impossible to extinguish their woes? Well, he’s determined to do it. Knowing full well that it cannot be done, he still insists on doing it against all odds. Aware of the difficulty of eradicating sentient beings’ woes, the Buddha is nonetheless willing to take on the tough work of teaching and transforming sentient beings.

This can be compared to when people make a resolve to save the world. How can the world be saved? One person alone cannot do it. It takes the effort of many people to save the world. However, if everyone just looks at one another and does nothing, the world will soon come to an end. You ought to bring forth the bodhi resolve to save sentient beings, not caring whether other people are doing this work. You should think, “I see that this is a job I ought to do, and so I’m just going to go ahead and do it.”

The work of saving the world is everyone’s responsibility. Since it’s everyone’s responsibility, I ought to do my share and not wait for others. That way, there’s a real possibility for the world to be saved.  

Candana Forest spirit awakens thus. The Spirit Candana Forest understands the various principles and states discussed and enters this passage into liberation.

[In answer to a question about Venerable Master Hsu Yun] If he were comfortable and at ease, you still wouldn’t do what he does. If he were totally at ease and free of sickness, you would be even more inclined to think, “He’s an eighth ground Bodhisattva, whereas I’m a sixth ground Bodhisattva, so I can’t do the things he does.” Wouldn’t you reason in that way, thinking, “Since he’s an eighth ground Bodhisattva, the things he does are beyond my ability.”

According to your view, he is an eighth ground Bodhisattva who is totally at ease in the wonderful functioning of spiritual powers, so he ought not to get sick, right? In my opinion, as an eighth ground Bodhisattva, he shouldn’t even come to such a defiled world. He shouldn’t come into this Evil World of the Five Turbidities. Since he came, it means that he was looking for something to do when there was nothing to do. Being idle and unoccupied, he wanted to come and be in the play. Having joined the play—this is your samadhi — he wanted to try everything out. Having come to the world, he acted the same as other sentient beings--eating, sleeping, wearing clothes, getting sick, and dying. He wasn’t any different from others. People have to come to realization on their own. His every move was speaking the Dharma for sentient beings. He manifested the conduct of being sick and in pain and suffering. Basically, what was his Three Steps One Bow pilgrimage for? Ostensibly, it was a pilgrimage to Wutai Mountain to pay respect to Manjushri Bodhisattva. Was Manjushri Bodhisattva really at Wutai Mountain? If Manjushri Bodhisattva were only at Wutai Mountain, then the sentient beings in the United States could never hope to see him. Therefore, all of this is speaking Dharma for us.

Even our two Bhikshus, who are doing a Three Steps One Bow Pilgrimage—what are they bowing for? They say they are bowing to all Buddhas of the ten directions and the three periods of time, to the Avatamsaka Assembly of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas as Vast as the Sea. Why do they need to do “three steps one bow” to pay homage to the Avatamsaka Assembly? The Avatamsaka Assembly’s Buddhas and Bodhisattvas are right here. The monks are just manifesting this practice as a way of speaking Dharma for sentient beings. There are many different ways of speaking Dharma. Even getting sick and dying are ways of speaking Dharma.

If you understand, then the person is speaking Dharma for you. If you don’t understand, then he is just doing something to keep from being idle. His work is superfluous and unnecessary. He thinks this world is a lot of fun, so he has come to play. The Bodhisattvas of the eighth, ninth, and tenth grounds have all come here to play. That’s called the playful samadhi. Therefore, why get attached to the matter of whether or not he gets sick? If you want to think along those lines, you ought to ask why an eighth ground Bodhisattva is not free from death. Why did he die? That’s the biggest question. Sickness is a minor matter in comparison.

The two “Three Steps One Bow” monks could be said to be great heroes. If they weren’t great heroes, they wouldn’t be able to do what they’re doing. In the future, all of you should become great heroes. We’ll become a hundred billion great heroes—heirs of Shakyamuni Buddha endowed with great might and great compassion.


Contemplate how the Dharma of all Buddhas is this way.
Having cultivated diligently in measureless eons past,
They are detached from all that exists.
Radiance of Leaving Dust enters this passage.  


All sentient beings should contemplate how the Dharma of all Buddhas throughout the ten directions and the three periods of time—the past, present, and future—is this way. That’s just the way the Dharma is. What way? We could go into great detail talking about this, but for now we will only speak in general. There are the Three Bodies, the Four Wisdoms, the Five Eyes, and the Six Spiritual Powers. There are all the spiritual transformations, and the 84,000 Dharma doors. They are all like this. Like what?

The path of language is cut off.
The place of the mind’s activity is gone.
The mouth wants to speak, but words are gone.
The mind wants to think, but there are no thoughts.

There is nothing to say. That’s just how it is. The Dharma of all Buddhas is that way. How can one attain this Dharma? How can one attain unmoving thusness and constant, clear understanding? The next line says very clearly:

Having cultivated diligently in measureless eons past . How did he attain this Dharma? He attained it because for limitless eons, he diligently cultivated precepts, samadhi, and wisdom, and extinguished greed, anger, and delusion. Throughout these limitless eons until now, he has diligently cultivated all dharmas. Having cultivated the Dharma and the Way which is thus, he now realizes the Buddha fruition which is thus. Diligent cultivation is the primary cause for the realization of Buddhahood.

When the Buddha cultivated the Way, he was vigorous in the six periods of the day and night. For the sake of seeking the Buddhadharma and attaining the Buddha Way, the Buddha renounced both internal and external wealth. External wealth refers to one’s country, cities, wife, and children. Internal wealth refers to one’s body, mind, life, and parts of the body, such as the head, eyes, brains, and marrow. The Buddha was able to give all of those away. He truly practiced the teachings and honestly applied himself to cultivation.  

They are detached from all that exists. All that exists encompasses everything within the Three Realms—the Desire Realm, the Form Realm, and the Formless Realm. What is it that exists in these Three Realms? Outflows, birth and death, ignorance, afflictions, and bad habits. Yet the Buddha was not attached to existence. He destroyed all attachments. Only when you have no attachments can you attain liberation. If you are still attached, you cannot be liberated. If you have the attachment to self and the attachment to dharmas, you cannot attain liberation. You have to get rid of all attachments whatsoever.

Radiance of Leaving Dust enters this passage. Medicine-ruling Spirit Radiance of Leaving Dust enters and understands this passage into liberation.


The Buddha is hard to encounter in a hundred thousand eons.
If there are those who get to see him or hear his name,
It is not in vain, and they will certainly benefit.
Universal Renown spirit understands thus.  

The Thus Come One, from every pore,
Emits bright light that extinguishes all disasters,
Putting an end to all the world’s afflictions.
Shining spirit enters this passage.  


The Buddha is hard to encounter in a hundred thousand eons. It is hard to get to hear the Buddhadharma. It is hard to obtain a human body. It is hard to get to be born in the United States. It is difficult to encounter a good advisor. As the verse goes,

The unsurpassed, profound, subtle and wonderful Dharma
Is difficult to encounter in a hundred million eons.
I now see and hear it, receive and maintain it,
And I vow to understand the Thus Come One’s true meaning.

Just as it is hard to encounter the Dharma in a hundred million eons, it is also not easy to meet up with the Buddha in a hundred million eons. Sometimes you meet him without recognizing him. Most people don’t realize they have met the Buddha until after the event. Zhu-ge Liang was able to know about things before they happened, but most people are confused when things happen and only figure out what’s going on later on.

If there are those who get to see him or hear his name . This is a hypothetical statement, “if…” Basically, this situation neither exists nor does not exist. But suppose there are people who see the Buddha or hear his name. It is not in vain, and they will certainly benefit. They will gain advantages, and the situation will not have been totally worthless. Universal Renown spirit, a Medicine-ruling Spirit with a great reputation, understands thus this passage into liberation. 

The Thus Come One, from every pore, / Emits bright light that extinguishes all disasters. Every time the Buddha raises his hand, takes a step, emits light, or causes the earth to quake, there are causes and conditions for it. What causes and conditions? He wishes to benefit sentient beings and eradicate all disasters and hardships. Disasters and hardships are misfortunes. The Buddha wishes to bring people good fortune and get rid of their disasters. How do people’s disasters get eradicated? They simply have to see the Buddha’s light or the Buddha’s body, and their disasters will vanish.  

Putting an end to all the world’s afflictions. There are all kinds of afflictions in the world. They are too numerous to describe in full. The Buddha displays great spiritual powers and eradicates the affliction-obstacles of all sentient beings. Once their affliction-obstacles are destroyed, their wisdom increases.

Shining spirit, a Medicine-ruling Spirit, enters this passage into liberation. She attains this kind of state. 


All sentient beings are blinded by ignorance.
Their delusion and karma lead to endless kinds of suffering.
The Buddha casts these out and reveals illuminating wisdom.
Destroyer of Darkness thus observes.  


All sentient beings are blinded by ignorance. We pitiful sentient beings consider ourselves intelligent, when in fact we have wandered unwittingly into the pit of birth and death. Why have we fallen into this pit of samsara without realizing it? Because we are ignorant. We are as if blind. Blind people can easily endanger their own lives by walking into the sea or into a river, or falling into a well. We foolish sentient beings may wish to be free from birth and death, but we cannot find our way out. We have no idea how to go about liberating ourselves from the cycle of rebirth in the six paths.  

Their delusion and karma lead to endless kinds of suffering. “Delusion” means the same thing as ignorance. Sentient beings become deluded, create karma, and receive retribution, over and over again. They keep revolving in this cycle, never managing to get out. Turning around and around, they don’t know what they are doing. This results in limitlessly many kinds of suffering.  

The Buddha casts these out and reveals illuminating wisdom. Seeing us wretched sentient beings, like trapped flies buzzing to and fro without being able to escape, the Buddha takes pity on us and casts out our delusion, karma, sufferings, and ignorance, causing our pure wisdom eye to open and illuminate everything like sunlight.

Medicine-ruling Spirit Pure Destroyer of Darkness thus observes. She understands this state and enters this passage into liberation.  


The Thus Come One’s single sound is unlimited.
It can open all Dharma doors, which are oceanic in extent.
Sentient beings who hear it gain complete understanding.
This is the liberation of Loud Sound.  


The Thus Come One proclaims the Dharma with a single sound.
Sentient beings each understand it according to their kind.

Thus the text says: The Thus Come One’s single sound is unlimited. It has no limits or bounds. It can open all Dharma doors, which are oceanic in extent. That one sound is replete with all sounds, all dharmas, and all meanings. Therefore, it can open the ocean of all Dharma doors. Sentient beings who hear it gain complete understanding. Every sentient being who hears the Buddha’s voice feels as if the Buddha is speaking directly to him. This is as when the sun shines, everyone feels the sunlight shining on him. This is the passage into liberation ofLoud Sound, which refers to Medicine-ruling Spirit Universally Roaring.


Observe the inconceivable wisdom of the Buddha.
He universally appears in every destiny to rescue all beings,
All who see him are transformed by his influence.
This is the deep insight of Banner Eclipsing the Sun.  


You ought to contemplate and observe the inconceivable great wisdom of the Buddha, gained through limitless eons of cultivation. It is difficult to imagine or describe such wisdom. The wisdom of sentient beings cannot fathom the state of the Buddha’s wisdom. For that reason, it is said to be “inconceivable.”

He universally appears in every destiny to save all beings. “Every destiny” includes the four evil destinies, wherein sentient beings with heavy offense karma dwell. With sincere compassion, the Buddha contemplates the sentient beings in the evil destinies—the asuras, hell-beings, hungry ghosts, and animals—and in the good destinies, such as the heavens. “Every destiny” encompasses all sentient beings, regardless of whether they are good or evil. With his great spiritual might, the Buddha manifests in every destiny, teaching and transforming sentient beings according to their kind.

The Buddha appears within the destiny of asuras in order to teach and transform the stubborn, unruly, and incorrigible asuras. Asuras are perverse and totally unreasonable. The Buddha appears in their midst as one of their kind, in order to influence them. Animals are of many kinds, and the Buddha manifests in many animal forms to teach them. The Buddha also appears as a hungry ghost in order to teach and transform hungry ghosts. The Buddha also goes into the hells in order to teach the beings there. He universally appears in every destiny in order to save all sentient beings.

The good flock together.
The evil gather in gangs.

Everyone likes to be with those of their own kind. People search for and hang out with others who are like them. The Buddha, using his spiritual powers, teaches sentient beings according to their potentials. All who see him are transformed by his influence. Sentient beings are easily influenced by the Buddha, and they cultivate according to his teaching. This kind of state is the deep insight of Medicine-ruling Spirit Banner Eclipsing the Sun. She deeply understands and awakens to this passage into liberation. 


The Thus Come One’s great compassion and expedients are oceanic.
For the sake of benefiting those in the world, he appears.
He extensively explains the Proper Path for sentient beings.
The Spirit Vision of the Directions comprehends thus.  


The Thus Come One’s great compassion and expedients are oceanic. The expedient Dharma doors of great compassion employed by the Thus Come One are as vast and deep as the ocean.

For the sake of benefiting those in the sentient world, he appears in the world. He extensively explains the Proper Path for sentient beings. The Proper Path is to be distinguished from deviant paths. The Proper Path refers to the Proper Dharma. He extensively expounds the Proper Dharma in order to show sentient beings the way to escape the Triple Realm. Medicine-ruling Spirit Clear Vision of the Ten Directions comprehends this state thus. She enters this passage into liberation. 


The Thus Come One sends forth brilliant light everywhere.
It illumines every being in the ten directions without fail,
Causing them to recollect the Buddha and create merit and virtue. This is the passage into liberation of Shining Majestic Radiance.  


The Thus Come One sends forth brilliant light everywhere. The Buddha dwells in the Treasury of Great Brilliance, and he releases that brilliant light everywhere. “Everywhere” means that every place throughout empty space and the Dharma Realm is within the Treasury of Great Brilliance.

Let me tell you a principle that many people might find unbelievable, but that ghosts and spirits will believe. Because people are too intelligent, people may be unable to believe this because they are too intelligent. Or their disbelief could also be due to excessive ignorance. Why is that? Those who are overly intelligent will not believe because their intelligence takes them too far. Those who are overly dull will not believe either, because their dullness does not reach the mark. What is this principle? It has to do with the library. There are libraries in various places in the world, and we ought to take good care of them. For example, we can install wooden shelves with glass doors to protect the books from getting dusty. Despite the protective measures taken in libraries, sometimes damage does occur. The damage or loss might come from the overprotectiveness of the librarian. For example, for the sake of protecting the books, he might take them to his own home and put them on his bed.

“Dharma Master, what you’re saying about libraries is not a very profound principle. It’s quite common and easy to understand.” I haven’t gotten to the profound part yet. Don’t be impatient. I’ve just made the point that people go to a lot of trouble to protect the books in libraries. For example, the members of the Sangha have to protect the Tripitaka—the Buddhist Canon. If there is instability in one country, they will move it to another country. If that country becomes unsafe, they will transport it to yet another country. But when the Sangha members die, it’s not known who will protect the Canon.

“Is he talking about me?” someone is thinking to himself.

“What in the world is he talking about?” another person is wondering. “The more he says, the more ordinary it sounds.” Now I’ll tell you something out of the ordinary. When you open your Buddha eye, your Dharma eye, and your wisdom eye, take a look and you will see that throughout empty space and the Dharma Realm, there is an uncountable number of libraries. These libraries don’t need anyone to watch over them, and yet the books don’t get lost either. Do you believe this? What’s more, every Bodhisattva, Buddha, and Arhat is there reading the infinite, inexhaustible Dharma Treasury. Every sage is there reciting his own never-ending sutra. None of these sutras need to be protected. If you haven’t opened the Buddha eye, the Dharma eye, or the wisdom eye, then don’t even try to understand what this state is all about. I knew that if I spoke about it, no one would believe me. Nonetheless, I cannot hold back and not speak. When it’s time to speak, I must speak.

“Where are these sutras?” you ask. “There’s nothing there in space. How come you say there are all those sutras there?” You say there’s nothing in space? Space contains everything whatsoever. It’s just that blind people cannot see the state of wonderful existence. For example, although the Buddha sends forth brilliant light everywhere, people without eyes cannot see it.

It illumines every sentient being in the worlds of the ten directions without fail. No sentient being escapes being illumined by the Buddha’s bright light. We have a saying,

The Buddha’s light shines universally.
The dew water moistens equally.  

The Buddha’s light shines on beings, causing them to recollect the Buddha and create merit and virtue. The Buddha inspires all sentient beings to recite the Buddha’s name. By reciting the Buddha’s name, they are freed from all sicknesses and karmic offenses. Once they get rid of their sicknesses and offenses, they create merit and virtue. With merit and virtue, they are able to bring forth the bodhi resolve, cultivate the Unsurpassed Way, and ultimately realize Buddhahood.

We who study Buddhism should avoid indulging in far-out fantasies. The higher and farther our thoughts take us, the less we understand what’s right in front of us. Some people devote all their time to investigating rocks on the moon. But do they completely understand the rocks on earth—how they are formed and how they develop? If they don’t even understand the rocks on earth, what are they studying moon rocks for? That’s a case of renouncing what is near to seek what is far away, neglecting what is fundamental to pursue what is superficial.

Seeing this, the Buddha wrinkles his brow and wonders, “What can be done? These sentient beings have forgotten about themselves and only ‘make wedding clothes for others.’” They use cloth to help other girls make wedding clothes, but don’t get married themselves. This is also known as “neglecting your own fields and going to till someone else’s fields.”  

This is the passage into liberation of the Medicine-ruling Spirit Shining Majestic Radiance.

All right, I’m not going to say anymore.

Great Master Zhizhe of the Tiantai School recited the Lotus Sutra to the part which says, “This is true vigor. This is a true offering of Dharma.” At that point, he saw Shakyamuni Buddha’s Dharma Assembly at Vulture Peak--it was still going on and had not dispersed.

Let me tell all of you good advisors another unbelievable principle: The Dharma assemblies Buddhas of the ten directions are all in progress at present. Therefore, everyone should work hard on his or her cultivation!

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